Wednesday, 26 July 2017

Unit 24 Networking Technologies


To enable learners to understand computer networking concepts, how they work, how they operate and the protocols, standards and the models associated with networking technology.

Unit 24 Networking Technologies

1.0  Introduction

1.1 Aim
Unit abstract
Understanding of the underlying principles of networking is of vital importance to all IT professionals in an environment that is increasingly complex and under continuous development.
Unit 24 Networking TechnologiesThe aim of this unit is to provide a background to the basic components of networked systems from which all networking operations derive. It also includes the evaluation of networks and network applications.
Learners taking this unit will explore a range of hardware and technologies, culminating in the design and deployment of a networked system. Working with many technologies, this unit can be used for mobile systems, local area networks as well as larger scale wider area networked systems. Supporting a range of units in the Higher National suite this unit underpins the principles of networks for all and enables learners to work towards their studies in vendor units if applicable.    

1.2 Learning Outcomes 

On successful completion of this unit a learner will: 
LO1- Understand networking principles
LO2 -Understand networking components
LO3- Be able to design networked systems
LO4- Be able to implement and support networked systems.

2.0 Unit Indicative content: 

1 Understand networking principles
Role of networks: purpose, benefits, resource implications, communications, working practice,    commercial opportunity, information sharing, collaboration
System: types, eg peer based, client-server, cloud, cluster, centralised, virtualised
Networking standards: conceptual models eg OSI model, TCP/IP model; standards: eg IEEE 802.x
Topology: logical eg Ethernet, Token Ring; physical eg star, ring, bus, mesh, tree, ring
Communication: bandwidth, throughput

Unit 24 Networking Technologies

Protocols: relationship to networking standards; purpose of protocols; routed protocols eg IPv4, IPv6,  FTP, HTTP, SMTP, POP3, SSL; management of protocols for addressing; routing protocols eg RIP, RIPv2, OSPF, OSPFv3, BGP
2 Understand networking components 
Hardware components: workstation eg mobile, fixed, handheld, console; servers; switches; routers; cabling; hubs; repeaters; bridges; wireless devices; mobile eg 3G, 4G, GPRS
Software components: software eg client software, server software, client operating system, server operating system
Server: type eg firewall, email, web, file, database, combination, virtualisation, terminal services server
Server selection: cost, purpose, operating system requirement
Workstation: hardware eg network card, cabling; permissions; system bus; local-system architecture eg memory, processor, I/O devices

Insurance And Risk Protection


We recommend that you use the study plan for this subject to help you manage your time to complete the assignment within your enrolment period. Your study plan is in the KapLearn Insurance and Risk Protection (DFP2v2) subject room.

Insurance And Risk ProtectionInsurance And Risk Protection
Before you begin
Read everything in this document before you start your assignment for Insurance and Risk Protection (DFP2v2).
About this document
This document includes the following parts:
  • Instructions for completing and submitting this assignment
  • The case study
  • Insurance and risk protection assessment:
–    Fact finder and risk profile template
–    Case study questions
–    Cash flow
–    Assumptions.
Instructions for completing and submitting this assignment
How to use the study plan
Completing the assignment
You are required to complete the following tasks in this assignment document:
  • complete the fact-finder template for your clients (the risk profile template is included in this document for you to view, but you are not required to complete the risk profile template for this assignment)
  • answer the assignment questions as they relate to sections 3, 4 and 5 of the case study
The information and data you need to do this work is presented as a case study. Some data will have to be externally sourced; the templates clearly indicate where this will be necessary.
Word count
The word count shown with each question is indicative only. You will not be penalised for exceeding the suggested word count. Please do not include additional information which is outside the scope of the question.
Additional research
You will be required to source additional information from other organisations in the financial services industry to find the right product/s to meet the Dalgar’s requirements, and to calculate your service fees.
Saving your work
Download this document to your desktop, type your answers in the spaces provided and save your work regularly.
  • Use the template provided, as other formats will not be accepted for these assignments.
  • Name your file as follows: Studentnumber_SubjectCode_Submissionnumber
    (e.g. 12345678_DFP1B_Submission1).
  • Include your student ID on the first page of the assignment.
Before you submit your work, please do a spell check and proofread your work to ensure that everything is clear and unambiguous.
Submitting the assignment
You must submit your completed assignment in a compatible Microsoft Word document.
You need to save and submit this entire document.
Do not remove any sections of the document.
Do not save your completed assignment as a PDF.
The maximum file size is 5MB. Once you submit your assignment for marking you will be unable to make any further changes to it.
You are able to submit your assignment earlier than the deadline if you are confident you have completed all parts and have prepared a quality submission.
The assignment marking process
You have 12 weeks from the date of your enrolment in this subject to submit your completed assignment.
Should your assignment be deemed ‘not yet competent’ you will be give an additional four (4) weeks to resubmit your assignment.
Your assessor will mark your assignment and return it to you in the Insurance and Risk Protection (DFP2_v2) subject room in KapLearn under the ‘Assessment’ tab.

Unit17 Database Design Concepts

Unit17 Database Design Concepts

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

Databases play an integral part in commercial domains, they provide users with a tool in which to store, model and retrieve data. Database development is fundamental in the area of computing and ICT within organisational contexts. Database Management Systems (DBMS) provide the systems, tools and interfaces by which the organization can manage their information and use it to assist in the effective running of the organization. Databases offer many links to others such as programming, systems analysis, HCI, as well as embracing issues of compatibility and end-user interfacing.
This unit explores database architecture, DBMS and the use of databases in an organizational context. Database design techniques are investigated and successful learners will be able to apply theoretical understanding to design, create and document a database system.

Unit17 Database Design Concepts

1.1 Aim:
To give learners opportunities to develop an understanding of the concepts and issues relating to databases and database design as well as the practical skills to translate that understanding into the design and creation of complex databases.
1.2 Objectives:
On successful completion of this unit a learner will :
1.Understand databases and data management systems
  1. Understand database design techniques
3.Be able to design, create and document databases.

2.0 Unit / Module Content

1 Understand databases and data management systems
Unit17 Database Design ConceptsDatabases: database architectures; files and record structures; physical and logical views of data; advantages of using databases; reduction of data redundancy; data consistency (validity, accuracy, usability and integrity); independence of data; data sharing possibilities; security; enforcement of standards; database utilities; data dictionaries; query languages; report generators.
Databases in an organizational context: database applications; role of the database
Administrator; key organizational issues eg integrity, security, recovery, concurrency; industry standards e.g. Microsoft SQL, Oracle, Sybase, dBase
Database Management Systems (DBMS): structures; purposes; features and advantages; Applications; methods of data organization and access
2 Understand database design techniques
Database design methods and methodology: requirements analysis; database designer working with expert in domain development area; requirement specification; logical design e.g. relational databases, tables; physical design e.g. data elements, data types, indexes; data analysis and design within systems analysis; database design within a system development methodology
Relational database design: tables, relations, primary/foreign/compound keys; entity relationship modeling; normalization theory to third normal form

Understanding Organizational Purposes Of Businesses


Marketing and innovation are the basic functions of a business enterprise. To understand a business it is essential to know about its purpose. The business operates with a purpose towards the society it functions in .The intention of business is to attain customers. A business keeps functioning only if it has customers. Customers keep business running. The business supplies the customers the resources that they need. (DRUCKER, Dr.Peter, 2009)

Understanding Organizational Purposes Of Businesses

TASK 1: Understanding organizational purposes of businesses

Understanding Organizational Purposes Of Businesses1.1Explaining the following types of organisations and their purposes:

Company Description: Virgin is an internationally recognised leading group. Virgin was founded in the year 1970 by British national Sir Richard Branson. Now the Virgin Group has ventured successfully in various sectors such as travel, phones, financial services, leisure, music, holidays and health services. Virgin operates globally in more than 50 countries employing about 50,000 people.
According tomarket reports Virgingroup made global branded revenues of £15bn ($24bn) in 2012.  (Virgin Group Limited, 2014)
Purpose of Virgin

Understanding Organizational Purposes Of Businesses

Profit makingand raising the capital through the issuance of shares.
Imposing restrictions and legal rules for the shareholders forbidding the shareholders cannot public trade
Expanding business operations and globalising the company
Company Description: McDonald’s operates globally as aleading foodservice retailer with more than 35,000 local restaurants and serves approximately 70 million people in more than 100 countries each day. It is one of the world’s largest fast food chains. Headquartered in the United States, the company was started in May, 1940 by Richard and Maurice McDonald; 8 years later the business was recognized as a hamburger stand employing the principles of production line. (MC DONALDS, 2010)
Purpose:
  • Growing its chain and increasing its worldwide presence by allowing local business to take its franchisee
  • Minimizing globalization cost
  • Entering local markets by adapting to the taste preferences of the locals.
Sainsbury PLC
Company description–This Company was founded in the year 1869. It is a conglomerate of more than 1000 convenience stores and supermarkets. It has also started online grocery chains. Now entered the property business in joint ventures with the Land Security Group and British Land Company. It has also entered the banking industry with the           Sainsbury’s bank.Purpose
Their business strategy is growth oriented and they desire to place themselves as the most trusted retailer brand.
Raising profits in the global markets and sharing its profit amongst the shareholders.
Gain competitive edge over the national and international retailing brands in the UK. (J Sainsbury plc, 2014)

Monday, 24 July 2017

Georgiana 4 Business Decision Making

Georgiana 4 Business Decision Making

Introduction

Georgiana 4 Business Decision MakingFinancial crisis takes a large toll not only on the people’s wallets, but also on the behaviour and attitude of consumer on spending and saving. So, in order to cope up with the economic conditions like inflation, recession, etc. the people of UK made many changes in their lifestyle that badly effect on the market conditions. To boost up the market condition, the financial institutions only are not enough. There should be effective decision makers in every organization, who  can bring change in the consumer behaviour and attitude towards financial activities such as spending, etc. So, this assignment aims to provide some knowledge regarding the importance of decision making towards conducting research. This also guide in gathering information, uses of different financial and statistical tools, etc. that helps in success of the business even in the poor economic conditions.
It is very necessary to gather information from the external environment to get the idea about the market conditions. This can be done by using two types of sources .They are primary sources and secondary sources. But to gather the resources there should be one effective plan made by the organization regarding research process.
The research process is based on two types of data. These are as follows.
Quantitative data:
The data that can be measured, counted and qualified is called quantitative data. For eg: height, weights, no of customers, no of phone calls, etc (Roberts, 2014).
Qualitative data:
The data that can’t be measured in physical units such as opinions, attitude, feelings, etc. of the customers are called qualitative data (Roberts, 2014).

1.1 Plan to collect primaty and secondary data

Primary data:
The data that is collected for the first time with the direct effort of the researcher is known as primary data. The collection of primary data requires much time, effort and money. The primary data are always gathered from some raw source of information. The collection of primary data provides a clear understanding of the present situation. The primary data can be collected as quantitative data and qualitative data (Iwh.on.ca, 2014).
Secondary Data:
The data that is collected from some other sources is known as secondary data. The secondary data collection procedure requires much less time and effort. However, the secondary data is not of less importance. The secondary data helps to make the primary data more accurate and precise. This data can be acquired both from internal as well as the external sources.  The internal sources include sales records, customer feedback, and cost record. The external sources include the newspaper, journal, books and magazines (Learning, 2014).

FNS50215 Diploma of Accounting


Elite Education Vocational Institute (EEVI) supports the national policy of recognition of

FNS50215 Diploma of Accounting
 Training and Assessment StrategyDiploma of Accounting (FNS50215)
Training Package TitleFNS Financial Services Training Package version 1.1
Code and Title of Qualification(FNS50215) Diploma of Accounting
Qualification
Pathways
FNS50215 Diploma of AccountingThis qualification reflects professional accounting job roles in financial services and other industries. Individuals in these roles apply solutions to a range of often complex problems, and analyse and evaluate information from a variety of sources. They apply initiative to plan, coordinate and evaluate their own work and guidance to others within defined guidelines. The qualification is suited to the needs of individuals who possess significant theoretical accounting skills and knowledge that they would like to develop in order to create further educational or employment opportunities.
Job Roles
·       Commercial accountant
·       Tax advisor
Entry requirements:
a)      English language equivalence requirements
·         English is the student's first language; or
·         IELTS 5.5 with no sub band scores less than 5.0; or
·         Completion of at least one year of full-time study at secondary, post-secondary or tertiary level; or
·         A pass grade or better in an English language subject at Australian Year 12 level or overseas equivalent; or
Completion of the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program at an Australian NEAS Accredited Language Centre; or
Completion of an English communication skills program appropriate for specific programs approved

b)     Educational and other qualifications, skills, and other prerequisites
·         A recognised secondary (high school) qualification; or completion of AQF Level 4 study (e.g., Certificate IV); or
For international students directly recruited from overseas, the entry requirement is the successful completion of equivalent high school certificate.
Pathways into the qualification
Preferred pathways for candidates considering this qualification include:
FNS40615 - Certificate IV in Accounting or other relevant qualification or other relevant qualification or with substantial vocational experience in a range of environments, acting in a range of senior support or technical roles.
Pathways from the qualification
After  achieving  this  qualification  candidates  may  choose  to  undertake  studies  at Bachelor Degree level, e.g., Bachelor of Business at Elite Education Institute with 4 unit exemption (ACC101, ACC102, MIS101, CMU201)
Target AudienceThis business qualification is designed for:
·         Individuals aspiring to build careers in commercial accountant roles;
·         Individuals wanting to work as public accountant roles, e.g., tax advisor.
·         Those wishing to upgrade skills in line with current best accounting practice.
The key learners for this qualification are international learners on a Student Visa who are required to attend 75% face to face study + 25% online study. Learners are international students and over 18 years of age. They have either completed their education to a level, which is equivalent to an Australian Senior High School, College or University, or are able to provide evidence with relevant work experience from their country of origin. Examples of indicative job roles for candidates seeking entry based upon their vocational experience include:
·         Manager
·         Supervisor
·         Marketing leader
Learners are drawn from a variety of Asian countries including India, Pakistan, Nepal, China, Korea, Thailand, and Iran etc. The vast majority of learners’ previous learning experiences have been by face to face based delivery mode.
DurationCalendar Year: Fifty Two (52) weeks
Academic Year: Thirty Six (36) weeks
Allocated Hours: 540 contact hours + 180 online hours
Terms: Four x Nine (9) weeks – 36 weeks
Holidays & Study Breaks: Sixteen (16) weeks – 4 x 4 weeks
Units of
competency
This qualification is made up of eight units of competency (six core units and two electives) the units of competency are stand alone and not sequenced in any specific order.
Recognition
of Prior Learning
qualifications and Statements of Attainment issued by other Registered Training Organisations (RTO), regardless of the location, provided that the RTO is registered to offer units of competency which exist within the qualification offered by EEVI and which may also exist in other Training Packages.
An application can be made for RPL when the student believes that they have already attained the necessary skills and competencies elsewhere (work other study etc.). An RPL application form is available from the Manager, Student Administration Services upon request.
The student will be required to provide documentation to support their application. The application will be processed and an assessment made as to the success or otherwise of the application. The student will be notified in writing of the result. The Student must sign (or otherwise accept) the ‘Record of Course Credit Granted’.
A copy of the Record of Course Credit Granted will be kept on the Student’s file.
Delivery
modes
Training is delivered in stages which correspond to AQF Level 5. Learners are provided with learning resources, training manuals and assessment requirements. The programme will be 75% in a classroom situation and 25% online study.
Candidates are provided with training manuals and materials for each individual unit which includes materials used in the training sessions, assessment materials (other than tests) and reference materials.
Students have at their disposal a computer lab with the necessary resources and computer equipment to create presentations, repeat and reinforce topics taught in classrooms or research topics using the Internet.
Emphasis will be made on reflecting “real work situations” in order to develop the skills identified in the “employ ability skills” for this qualification.
Course
Structure


All units delivered in the Diploma of Accounting are listed below. To suit individual student needs, 75% of the course content is delivered in the classroom environment (including trainer presentations, videos, resource texts, individual and group exercises, and role play) and 25% is conducted online.
TermUnit CodeUnit TitleCore/ Elective
Nominal
Hours
Term 1FNSACC301Process financial transactions and extract interim reportsElective100
BSBFIA401Prepare financial reportsElective80
Term 2FNSACC501Provide financial and business performance informationCore40
FNSORG505Prepare financial reports to meet statutory requirementsElective50
FNSACC506Implement and maintain internal control proceduresCore50
FNSACC504*Prepare financial reports for corporate entitiesCore40
Term 3FNSACC507Provide management accounting informationCore60
FNSACC503Manage budgets and forecastsCore60
FNSACC505Establish and maintain accounting information systemsElective60
Term 4FNSACC502Prepare tax documentation for individualsCore80
FNSACC601**Prepare and administer tax documentation for legal entitiesElective100
* FNSACC504 has two prerequisite units’ requirements: FNSACC301 Process financial transactions and extract interim reports, and BSBFIA401 Prepare financial reports.
** FNSACC601 has one prerequisite unit’s requirement: “FNSACC502 - Prepare tax documentation for individuals”
Assessment
Strategies
The assessments in this qualification have been designed to include role plays and case studies among other assessments tools to simulate a workplace environment while covering the critical elements of evidence in a variety of simulated settings. These assessment strategies are delivered using face-to-face delivery and online facilitated learning.
Face-to-face Delivery
Structured formal training for all Units will be held in a designated classroom at Elite Education Vocational Institute premises;
·      Students are expected to attend all scheduled training sessions with correct equipment, books etc.
·      Students are expected to undertake reading and research activities in conjunction with the delivery of face-to-face theory and practical sessions (if required).
·      Activities involve small groups and individual activities performed in the classroom or replicated environment under direct supervision and are provided for all students.
·      Students are provided with learners’ guide for each unit, which include materials required to be used in the learning environment as well as examples of best work practices.
·      Students may be required to purchase a required textbook; this will be clearly indicated to students in the learners’ guide or instructed by the trainer.
Emphasis will be made to replicate workplace situations (performing number of tasks, changing plans, team work, addressing problems) in the class rooms in order to develop identified employability skills.
Assessment
Arrangements
Assessment is both formative and summative and a holistic approach has been applied where possible. Evidence gathered is a combination of observation and written reports, case studies, question and answers, self-assessments and third party reports (if applicable).

Employability
Skills
The application of Employability Skills – communication, teamwork, problem-solving, initiative and enterprise, planning and organising, self-management, learning and technology – are holistically assessed in the evidence gathering techniques against the relevant industry approaches and employability skill framework.
Evidence Gathering TechniquesThe purpose of this assessment is to ensure that participants are competent against the units of competency in FNS50215 because quality assessment underpins the credibility of vocational education and training.
Key A – Research and/or Portfolio
Students can be asked to do independent or collaborative research and/or gather a reasonable or substantial amount of evidence to support an assessment that requires a breadth of knowledge which builds upon the underpinning knowledge. Research and the collation of a portfolio of evidence can be done over a period of one or more units or confined to one particular assessment.
Key B – Questioning and/or interview
Learners will be assessed through questioning and testing in some units. The goal here is to identify the learner’s underpinning knowledge. Short answer questions and answers may be required or multiple choice questions may be featured depending on the required knowledge and criteria being assessed.
Key C – Written Examination
Learners will be assessed through a formal written examination to assess the competence of mastering the knowledge and skills in related areas.
Key D – Scenario and/or Case Study
Learners will be assessed through a Scenario/Case study – Problem Solving mechanism in some units. A systematic approach to overcoming obstacles or problems in the management process. Problems occur when something is not behaving as it should, when something deviates from the norm, or when something goes wrong. The learner through this assessment instrument will be able to overcome such obstacles. Fault finding is like validating/moderating or testing different training materials or any other resource (a technical story versus a set of diagnostic heuristics).
Key E – Role Play
Learners will be assessed through role play assessment activity in some units. In role play activity, participants adopt and act out the role of characters, or parts that may have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own.
Key F – Essay/ Written Report
Learners may be asked to write a substantial essay about a hypothetical situation. This can be problem based or an analytical study of a case or some problem. Students will be required to analyse the issues and form logical and reasonable conclusions based upon the available evidence. Learners will be assessed through written reports in some units. The goal is to ensure the learner possesses the tools for using technical skills in writing and drafting professional workplace reports.
Key G – Project and/or Plans
Learners will be assessed through projects and plans. Projects/plans will focus on particular aspects or topics undertaken over the duration allocated for the delivery of the units. The project/plan activities can reflect authentic workplace techniques and processes. The project/plan can have several components relating to formulation, scope, purpose and objectives. The project/plan will require the collection of information and the presentation of outcomes.
Key H – Presentation
Learners will be assessed on in-class presentations. The presentations will be developed by the learner and presented to their peer group. The presentations are conducted in a similar manner to a workplace presentation.
Assessment
Evidence Matrix
Unit CodeUnit NameABCDEFGH
FNSACC301Process financial transactions and extract interim reports XXX    
BSBFIA401Prepare financial reports XXX    
FNSACC501Provide financial and business performance information X X    
FNSORG505Prepare financial reports to meet statutory requirements X   X  
FNSACC506Implement and maintain internal control proceduresX  X    
FNSACC504Prepare financial reports for corporate entities  XX    
FNSACC507Provide management accounting information   X X X  
FNSACC503Manage budgets and forecastsX  X X  
FNSACC505Establish and maintain accounting information systems X X  X 
FNSACC502Prepare tax documentation for individuals X X  X 
FNSACC601Prepare and administer tax documentation for legal entities X X  X 
Infrastructure
requirements
All staff, including full-time, part-time and casual staff involved in the delivery and assessment of the qualification has direct access to the current version of the relevant training package, including the appropriate units of competency, assessment guidelines and qualification structure.
All staff, including full-time, part-time and casual staff involved in the delivery and assessment of the qualification has direct access to trainer, assessor and candidate support materials relevant to their areas of delivery and assessment. All assessors have access to print and electronic copies of the assessment tools that are used in this programme.
EEVI has access to staff and training and assessment resources to meet the requirements of candidates with special needs and have an assessment process that incorporates reasonable adjustment procedures.
The following equipment and facilities are available:
·      Learning and assessment materials
·      Training and assessment materials and tools (as supplied to all trainers and assessors)
·      Equipment (as required) including white-board, computer lab, power points, printers.
·      Trainer/s and other specialised RTO staff (as required)
Licensing,
Legislative, Regulatory or Certification Considerations
There is no direct link between this qualification and licensing, legislative and/or
regulatory requirements. However, where required, a unit of competency will specify relevant licensing, legislative and/or regulatory requirements that impact on the unit.
Delivery and
assessment staff
  Training and assessment is conducted by trainers and assessors who:
a)      have a TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, or a diploma or higher level qualification in adult education.
b)      have at least FNS50215 Diploma of Accounting or its equivalent
c)       at least three years of vocational industry experience, or have current industry skills relevant to the qualification
d)      continue  developing  their  vocational  and  training  and  assessment competencies to support continuous improvements in delivery of EEVI’S courses
Principles of AssessmentFairness
The individual learner’s needs are considered in the assessment process. Where appropriate, reasonable adjustments are applied by the assessor to take into account the individual learner’s needs. The assessor informs the learner about the assessment process, and provides the learner with the opportunity to challenge the result of the assessment and be reassessed if necessary.
Flexibility
Assessment is flexible to the individual learner by:
·         reflecting the learner’s needs;
·         assessing competencies held by the learner no matter how or where they have been acquired; and
·         drawing from a range of assessment methods and using those that are appropriate to the context, the unit of competency and associated assessment requirements, and the individual.
Validity
Any assessment decision is justified, based on the evidence of performance of the individual learner: Validity requires:
·         assessment against the unit/s of competency and the associated assessment requirements covers the broad range of skills and knowledge that are essential to competent performance;
·         assessment of knowledge and skills is integrated with their practical application;
·         assessment to be based on evidence that demonstrates that a learner could demonstrate these skills and knowledge in other similar situations; and
·         judgement of competence is based on evidence of learner performance that is aligned to the unit/s of competency and associated assessment requirements.
Reliability
Evidence presented for assessment is consistently interpreted and assessment results are comparable irrespective of the assessor conducting the assessment:
Rules of EvidenceValidity
The assessor is assured that the learner has the skills, knowledge and attributes as described in the module or unit of competency and associated assessment requirements.
Sufficiency
The assessor is assured that the quality, quantity and relevance of the assessment evidence enables a judgement to be made of a learner’s competency.
Authenticity
The assessor is assured that the evidence presented for assessment is the learner’s own work.
Currency
The assessor is assured that the assessment evidence demonstrates current competency. This requires the assessment evidence to be from the present or the very recent past.
Assessment
validation process
All assessment methods, materials, tools, evidence used, decision making and process are validated in the following ways:
Assessor networks: EEVI encourages the coming together of assessors involved in VET assessment to develop and extend their professional practice. Through the exchanging of ideas about the meaning of specific competency standards, the evidence requirements, the ways of gathering evidence and the basis on which assessment decisions are made. 
Implementation: Various validation strategies ensure consistency between assessors during assessment, including the use of standard processes, materials and tools across units and direct supervision of new assessors. 
Evaluation / Follow up: Feedback is gathered from all stakeholders in the assessment process including candidates and assessors. Assessment processes, methods, materials, tools and decision-making are revised (as applicable) in light of evaluation results. 
Transitioning arrangements
Prospective advice is given to existing and potential learners regarding new or revised Training Packages via the student portal, website e-news or through EEVI administration department. 
Monitoring and Evaluation
Major methods used to monitor and evaluate the delivery and assessment of this qualification include:
·         Reactions (feedback) from all stakeholders including facilitators, assessors, participants and candidates both during and after the delivery and assessment.
·         Learning of individuals is measured.
·         Behaviour is measured by focusing on the candidate’s performance and progress.
Record maintenance
Records are maintained according to SNR 19 of the National Vet Regulator. 
Professional Development for Assessors
Professional development is the means by which assessors acquire, develop and maintain the competencies required to carry out quality assessment in the VET sector. It also includes the ways in which assessors maintain knowledge of any changes in policy, practice and research that may impact on their assessment processes. EEVI’s assessors undertake professional development in a number of ways which may include assessor networks, mentoring and coaching, internal validation activities, project teams, workplace visits, structured professional development activities, in-house training programs and formal/informal programs of further study and professional reading.
Date:23/10/2015
Principal’s
Signature
 
Review Date:22/10/2017

History As A Science-Reasons And Justifications Of The Claim

History As A Science-Reasons And Justifications Of The Claim

Introduction:

History As A Science-Reasons And Justifications Of The ClaimWhen dealing with the nature and subject matter of history it is essential that, right at the outset, the definition of the subject history is mentioned. History is referred as “the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyze a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them”. Unlike the popular conception, the study of history has been one of the most interesting and long-standing research topics. As a matter of fact, the study of history has attracted as many researchers and academicians as has any other social science subject or literature. There are accounts of exemplary works of a number of eminent scholars who went knee-deep into the research to explore the dynamics of the nature of the subject history to strive to redefine the discourses and know the unknown. Among the various aspects that have been subjected to exhaustive research over the decade, the question of whether history can be defined as a science has been at the forefront and till date, has been one of the most debated topics. The trends and dynamics of the studies and researches conducted on the nature of history and the observations and findings the scholars have come up with hint at the efforts on the part of the historians to regard history as a science. Stemming from this, there have been lots of remarkable studies on the approach of the historians to consider history as a science. The studies seek to explore the reasons behind such an approach, the logic behind the claims and the extent to which they have been able to justify their notion of history being a science. These studies have, in fact, given a new meaning to the study of history and have explored the avenues that had not been accessed earlier.The present work would strive to find the logic behind the claims of the historians, the reasons that shaped their belief and to what extent their point of view can be justified. For the purpose of the work, the concepts and opinion of various scholars from both the schools of thought would be taken into account and examined closely to arrive at the conclusions.

The claims, counter claims and justifications:

There are a number of examples of the consideration of history as a science and the justification given by the scholars about it being a science. Among the most prominent examples the opinion of Droysen who authored the “History of Prussian Politics” is of particular importance. He opined that history is “science and definitely not art and the attitudes of art and science are opposed and irreconcilable”. Another important example that can be mentioned in this regard is the book named “Manual of Historical Method” published by Professor Ernst Bernheim. Bernheim opines that history is a science and not an art as it seeks to provide an understanding of the issues and the developments and not the aesthetic pleasure that the arts define. He further explained that the results of history can well be defined in the form of a prose and prose is necessarily an aspect of arts but having said that, it suffices that the results are no less than a scientific report .The author states that there may be a component of art in the study of history but such instances are rare and coincidental. The supporters of the school of thought that strive to give history the scientific dimension mention the point that history does not represent the reality, as the art does but examines and represents it scientifically. The history provides a detailed account of the developments of the past as does sciences do. However, the opinion of various scholars about the nature of science put forth the crux of the matter that a subject must be able to develop and present concepts and science is no science without concepts. This notion is applied in the context of history and the answer to the question of what concepts does history develop and represent is answered masterfully by Bernheim when he says that “History is the science of the development of humans in their activity as social beings” .However, in spite of this seemingly masterful answer that Bernheim had provided, there remain clauses that go against his belief. Scholars opine that when history is considered a science the scope of art is considered too narrow and the scope of science too broad and as such, the statement that history was the science of development is only apparent. As such, history is not a science of development and it is no way a reflective of what is meant by development and it merely recounts the events and facts that led to the development. At this juncture, it is important to make note of what Schopenhauer opined. According to Schopenhauer, history does not deserve any scientific recognition owing to the fact that it lacks the basic attributes of science. He maintains that “History lacks the basic feature of science, subordination of the things that come into consideration and it only knows how to present a mere coordination of the facts that it registers” .He further claimed that all the science were concerned with the cognitions and always states the types, whereas, history deals with individuals. As such, even if history is considered a science, it would be a science of individuals, which by no means is of the recognized scientific fervor and is equally undesirable. Related to the opinion of the above mentioned scholar is the opinion of Lazarus, who stated that there lies a fundamental difference history and science as history deals with individuals and concrete facts. The essence of the sciences lies in the laws and concepts that underline the facts and as such, the spectrum and scope of history does not acquire the scientific character and attributes. He stated that the emphasis of history is all the more event centric and less general and which is, in fact, an essential feature of sciences. As such, science has a general outlook and scope which examines the concepts and principles that define the facts and not the facts and events individually. Thus, history is believed to be a narrative account of what happened when and why. However, one point is worth mentioning in this context. As per the discussion mentioned above, the consideration of history as any form of science has been denied. Stemming from this is the fact that the study of history, in the modern times came to be regarded as useless and time-consuming without any interesting results. At this juncture, the views developed by Buckle took the world by surprise when he opined that history can be made a science by virtue of the laws “that govern it from the mass of facts, as science requires”. However, Buckle’s views took no time to draw sharp criticisms and rebuttals owing to his concept of the “historical facts” and the false premise on which his views were based about history formulating the historical laws, which in reality, was that history does not formulate or determine the laws or concepts but state what happened when and for what reasons in a structured manner after an exhaustive study.
Droysen claimed that all arts represent the final product and not in pieces but history represents the contents those are often fragmented, not certain and not even complete and as such, it was not an art. But that fact is owed to the weakness of history as a discipline that it does not represent complete and certain contents and this in no way qualifies that history is not an art but a science. In the same manner Bernhiem’s claims that history was a science of development do not possess empirical evidences and he must have stated that history was a representation of developments and the representation of the societal affairs and human behaviors in accordance with the passage of time.
As such, the claims of the scholars representing history as a science were ridiculed by the ones who considered history a subject of humanities and denied access to the league of sciences.

Conclusion:

The accounts of the works and concepts developed by the scholars mentioned above provide a clear understanding of the factors that led to the development of the feeling that history can be regarded as a science, and the attributes that hinted that history was not an art but a science. The views of the scholars who formulated the school of thought that regarded history as a science gave explanations for their point of view in the statements and justifications stating that history was the science of development and history did have laws., named an “historical laws” and also possessed other attributes that classified it as a science and not an art .The views of the supporters of this school of thought have time and again been criticized and justified as wrong and so far the development that history is claimed to define is concerned, history was the representation of the events and facts that led to the development over the period of time and history does not either possess or have the capability to formulate laws and concepts which is a fundamental characteristic of a science.Having said this, the efforts on the part of the historicians to regard history as a science can be attributed to the fact that they wanted the subject of history be treated at par with the scientific body of knowledge and help it get rid of the tag of being an useless and boring humanities subject which lack analysis and scientific fervor. In the due course, it has been seen that the supporters of the claim that history was a science were silenced by the purists of science who themselves were quite adept with the subject matter and approach of history and the way it is studied.However, this does not mean that the supporters of the scientific dimension to history did not have any concrete substance. The views and justification of scholars like Bernheim and Buckle had been and continue to be important parts of the study of the nature and subject matter of history and the view points of the scholars mentioned form an integral part of any research done on the subject even at this point of time. The views of the supporters of the scientific fervor of history are relevant and are manifest in the fact that there has been a hitherto development of linking science with history which is regarded as the “philosophy of history”.The discipline has emerged into a means of inquiry into the historical laws and the meanings and implications of history and has opened up the concept developed by Hegel which was considered dead considering the way the claim of the scientific dimension of history was cancelled out, the aspect of the “Philosophy of History”. It would deal with the aspects of the “examination of history and historical writing, the cognitive development of historical facts, the real elements of the subject and the meaning and value of the course of history”. As such, the analysis of history can well strike the chords of the researchers and scholars to inquire into the philosophy of history pertaining to the aspects mentioned above in a scientific manner.
As such, the question of whether history is a science and if so, how far have the historicians been able to justify it takes the reach of the discussion to encompass far flung but intrinsically related aspects. Though the nature of history and the development of the philosophy of history can well be a means to bridge the gap between the two schools of thought, the aggressive claims by scholars about history being a science and not an art and likewise, history being an art and not a science can be attributed to the false premise of narrowing the scope of art a bit too much and widening the scope of science a bit too much.

History As A Science-Reasons And Justifications Of The Claim

In short, the claims of scholars about history being a science cannot completely be established or done away with. The fact of the matter is that, the question of regarding history as either a science or an art is confusing and amateurish. Insofar, the claims of the scholars about history being a science is concerned they had been successful in, at least, giving a new life to the idea such as the philosophy of history in the modern day. This requires a new approach to examine the nature of history and then come to inferences without keeping the disciplines of science and arts chamber-tight.
Bibliography:
Bloch, Marc, The Historian's Craft, 1st edn (New York: Knopf, 1953)
Burke, Peter, Eyewitnessing: The Use of Images as Historical Evidence, (London: Reaktion Books, 2001)
Burke, Peter, New Perspectives On Historical Writing, 1st edn (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992).
Cannadine, David, What Is History Now?, 1st edn (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002)
Cannon, John, The Historian At Work, 1st edn (London: Allen & Unwin, 1980)
Carr, Edward Hallett, and Michael Cox, The Twenty Years' Crisis, 1919-1939, 1st edn (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave, 2001)
Certeau, Michele de (1998), The Writing of History, trans. by Tom Conley (New York: Columbia University Press,1998)
Elton, Geoffrey R , The Practice of History (London: Fontana, 1999)
Evans, Richard J.,  In Defence of History (London: Granta Books, 1997)
Hunt, Lynn, ed., The New Cultural History (California: The University of California Press, 1989)
Jordanova, Ludmilla (2006), History in Practice (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006)
 Lemon, Michael , The Discipline Of History And The History Of Thought, 1st edn (London: Routledge, 2002)
Lowenthal, David, The Heritage Crusade And The Spoils Of History, 1st edn (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998)
 Ritter, Harry, Dictionary Of Concepts In History, 1st edn (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986)
Scott Gordon and James Gordon Irving (1991), The History and Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge.
Stearns, Peter N, Peter C Seixas, and Samuel S Wineburg, Knowing, Teaching, And Learning History, 1st edn (New York: New York University Press, 2000)
Tosh, John, ed., and intro., Historians on History: An Anthology, (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2000)
Williams, Robert Chadwell, The Historian's Toolbox, 1st edn (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2003)  
Bloch, Marc, The Historian's Craft, 1st edn (New York: Knopf, 1953),p. 68
Burke, Peter, New Perspectives On Historical Writing, 1st edn (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992)
Burke, P (2001), Eyewitnessing: The Use of Images as Historical Evidence, (London: Reaktion Books)
Cannadine, D, ed (2002), What is history Now? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan),p. 64
Bloch, Marc, The Historian's Craft, 1st edn (New York: Knopf, 1953),p. 82
Certeau, Michele de (1998), The Writing of History, trans. by Tom Conley (New York: Columbia University Press,1998)
Elton, Geoffrey R , The Practice of History (London: Fontana, 1999)
Jordanova, Ludmilla (2006), History in Practice (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006)
Cannon, John, The Historian At Work, 1st edn (London: Allen & Unwin, 1980)
. Lemon, Michael , The Discipline Of History And The History Of Thought, 1st edn (London: Routledge, 2002),p 16
Lowenthal, David, The Heritage Crusade And The Spoils Of History, 1st edn (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998) p.38
Ritter, Harry, Dictionary Of Concepts In History, 1st edn (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986), p.147
Tosh, John, ed., and intro., Historians on History: An Anthology, (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2000), p. 154
Williams, Robert Chadwell, The Historian's Toolbox, 1st edn (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2003) p. 15
Hunt, Lynn, ed., The New Cultural History (California: The University of California Press, 1989),p. 87
Tosh, John, ed., and intro., Historians on History: An Anthology, (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2000)
Bloch, Marc, The Historian's Craft, 1st edn (New York: Knopf, 1953),p. 38
Evans, Richard J.,  In Defence of History (London: Granta Books, 1997)

Client Demographic And The Service


Client Demographic And The ServiceThis document outlines a plan to implement a yoga group for young people participating in a homelessness transitional accommodation program. A significant proportion of them have experienced trauma. The innovative group has been developed to provide support for mental and physical health, opportunities for socialising, and recreation.

Client Demographic And The Service
Introduction
            To begin, the client demographic will be discussed. Secondly, yoga and trauma theory will be presented. The logistics of the group will then be explained, and potential issues will be considered. An evaluation method is also included. Finally, a discussion of the possible social impacts of the group, in light of key social work themes, will be suggested.
            This is a real-life group plan that will be offered in a youth homelessness service located in Sydney, Australia. The organisation has been de-identified to protect the privacy of the people involved. For the purpose of this paper, the organisation will be named, The Service.
Client Demographic and The Service
            The Service support young people aged 16-24 years old, who are experiencing, or are at risk of homelessness. They are provided with safe, stable accommodation for up to two years. Case management is provided alongside to support the young people to reach their goals and move towards independence. Furthermore, young people have access to living skills development, therapeutic and psychological support, education and employment opportunities, and recreational activities.
            The young people come to The Service for a number of reasons, notably: homelessness, family breakdown, exiting out-of-home-care, mental ill health, drug and alcohol misuse, grief and loss, domestic violence, and the experience of trauma. Anecdotal evidence suggests that 90% of the young people have experienced some form of trauma (personal communication, 2016). The Service works from the therapeutic framework of Trauma Informed Care and Practice (TICAP). This model acknowledges the adverse impact that trauma can have on the mind, body, development, and relationships of survivors (Steele & Malchiodi, 2012). In TICAP, therapeutic relationships are categorised by an emphasis on restoring and cultivating a trauma-survivors’ sense of safety, trust, and choice. Staffs are non-directive, instead acting as a collaborator with the young person to support their empowerment (Clark, Classen, Fourt & Shetty, 2015).
Yoga
            Yoga developed in India and has been practiced for over five thousand years. The teachings have been traced back to the Vedas and Upanishads, which are sacred Hindu texts. Throughout time, yoga teachers and practitioners adapted the practice, creating a yoga philosophy, spirituality, and practice not confined by the structures of any individual religious tradition (Emerson & Hopper, 2011). Emerson and Hopper (2011) state, “yoga as a practice has survived the millennia mostly because of its expansive and inclusive nature; it has been adaptable to the needs of highly disparate cultures from ancient India to modern-day New York City” (p. 27).
            Modern-day yoga practices predominantly consist of a combination of breathing exercises (pranayama), poses (asanas), and meditation. Different orientations have variations of intensity. The Service yoga group will adopt a simple, trauma-sensitive approach, focussing on: connecting movements with breath, beginner-level classic postures, and relaxation techniques (Van Der Kolk, 2014). The group program will be delivered in partnership with another Sydney based non-government organisation, who employ qualified volunteer yoga teachers using trauma-sensitive yoga principles. Further to this, the mind-body studio of a local gym has been donated for use. 
Trauma Recovery and Yoga
Trauma has profound impacts. It can be toxic to the body; people may experience a cycle of hyperarousal and/or dissociative numbing. Survivors often feel out of control internally and externally. They can experience unbearable pain. Impulse and affect regulation can be inhibited, and negative self-perception is common (Emerson, 2015). Yoga targets these symptoms in ways that traditional therapeutic approaches often can’t.
            Trauma-sensitive yoga attempts to support participants to develop awareness of the mind and body connection. In turn, self-regulation capacities are cultivated, which can be applied in daily life (Emerson, 2015). Van Der Kolk et al. (2014) assigned a group of women diagnosed with PTSD to a 10-week trauma-informed yoga group. At completion, 52% of participants no longer met criteria for the disorder. They found these effect sizes comparable with pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions (Van Der Kolk et al, 2014). “Yoga may improve the functioning of traumatized individuals by helping them to tolerate physical and sensory experiences associated with fear and helplessness and to increase emotional awareness and affect tolerance (Van Der Kolk et al., 2014, p. 1). In short, yoga can help people restore control in their life (Emerson & Hopper, 2011).
            Logistics and Potential Issues
            Young people are a dynamic demographic who have fast changing interests. In order to sustain engagement, The Service yoga group will run for a trial period of six weeks (Laser & Nicotera, 2011). The group will be advertised on the notice board inside the service. Furthermore, staffs will promote the group at house meetings and during individual case meetings. An essential component of TICAP is choice. The framework suggests that positive, sustainable change is possible when a client is able to make decisions about their own life, without influence and direct assertion from a third party (Steele & Malchiodi, 2012). For this reason, the group will be open. Participants can choose if they’d like to attend, and for how long. This approach contrasts traditional social work groups, which often ask participants to commit to attending for all nominated sessions (Gitterman & Salmon, 2009). In saying this, an open group is youth friendly, and it fosters a sense of trust and agency (Steele & Malchiodi, 2012).
            Sessions will be weekly for an hour, on a weekday afternoon. There are 26 young people participating in The Service program currently. The yoga group will be open to all. Initial feedback has suggested up to ten will participate (personal communication, 2016). To support the group, two yoga teachers will be present; one will lead, and the other will provide individual guidance and support when required. Furthermore, two staffs from The Service will attend to address any other potential issues, particularly if any young people feel emotionally or physically unsafe.
            Risk assessments will be completed before the group begins. Staffs will be aware of potential issues and the necessary control measures to be taken. 24 hours before each session, the young people will be sent a text message asking for them to confirm attendance. Once the participants are known, The Service staffs will assess any potential conflict in the group dynamic and develop control strategies if needed. Additionally, young people will be unable to participate if staffs identify that they appear intoxicated. These processes will ensure that young people, volunteers, staff, and other stakeholders are kept safe, and that the young people are given a fair opportunity to benefit from the group (Gitterman & Salmon, 2009).
Evaluation
            Feedback will be gathered informally through conversations between volunteers, staffs and young people. A questionnaire will enrich this (Krysik & Finn, 2013). The Andrews and Withey (1976) “Delighted-Terrible” social wellbeing scale has been adapted and changed to a Terrible-Awesome spectrum. Terrible is a score of zero (0). Awesome is a score of seven (7). Four (4) indicates a neutral feeling. Delighted was replaced by Awesome to appeal to a contemporary youth discourse (Laser & Nicotera, 2011). Participants will anonymously score themselves before and after each session. Further to this, two open questions will ask, “What did you like about the session?” and “What didn’t you like?” The simple mixed-method questionnaire will be used to evaluate the group program and assess its value (Krysik & Finn, 2009).
Social Impact
            The Service yoga group will address some of the fundamental ideals of the social work profession. The Australian Association of Social Workers (AAWS, 2016) state that, “social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing…social workers maintain a dual focus on both assisting with and improving human wellbeing and identifying and addressing any external issues” (para. 2 & 4). The individual benefits of the yoga group have been discussed. On an external level, notions of power can be considered.
            Power is an omnipresent dynamic in both macro and micro level structures and relations. Social workers and the agencies that employ them are unwittingly afforded a sense of power in the lives of the people and communities they support (Fook, 2016). As a symbolic and practical gesture to acknowledge and address this fact, The Service staffs will participate in the yoga group with the young people. It is hoped that the staffs and young people may experience a sense of oneness, collaboration, and equality. With regards to power, Fook (2016) states, “It is therefore conceivable that both less and more powerful people can work together to create situations in which all experience empowerment. If effect, more power can potentially be created” (p. 70).
Conclusion
            Yoga is an ancient practice, which is adaptable for different groups. This paper has outlined a plan to offer a yoga group to young people who are participating in a homelessness transitional program; many of whom have experienced trauma. The Service supports the young people using a trauma-informed care and practice framework. The model emphasises safety, trust, choice, collaboration, and empowerment.
            In partnership with two other agencies, a trauma-sensitive yoga group will run for a trial period of six weeks. Yoga develops mind-body connection awareness, and self-regulation skills. The group aims to address trauma symptoms through this. By offering an open group, The Service aims to empower choice and cultivate an environment where volunteers, staffs, and young people share a sense of power, resulting in an environment of equality. The group will be evaluated through a mixed-method questionnaire measuring self-assessed wellbeing.
References
Andrews, F.M., & Withey, S.B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. Americans perceptions of life quality. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Australian Association of Social Workers. (2016). What is social work? Retrieved from https://www.aasw.asn.au/information-for-the-community/what-is-social-work
Clark, C., Classen, C.C., Fourt, A., & Shetty, M. (2015). Treating the trauma survivor. An essential guide to trauma-informed care. New York, NY: Routledge.
Emerson, D. (2015). Trauma-sensitive yoga in therapy. Bringing the body into treatment. New York, NY: W.W Norton & Company.
Emerson, D., & Hopper, E. (2011). Overcoming trauma through yoga. Reclaiming your body. Berkely, CA: North Atlantic Books.
Fook, J. (2016). Social work. A critical approach to practice (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sage Publications.
Gitterman, A., & Salmon, R. (2009). Encyclopedia of social work with groups. New York, NY: Routledge.
Krysik, J.L., & Finn, J. (2013). Research for effective social work practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Steele, W., & Malchiodi, C.A. (2012). Trauma informed practices with children and adolescents. New York, NY: Routledge.
Laser, J.A., & Nicotera, N. (2011). Working with adolescents. A guide for practitioners. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Van Der Kolk, B. (2014). The body keeps the score. Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York, NY: The Penguin Group.
Van Der Kolk, B.A., Stone, L., West, J., Rhodes, A., Emerson, D., Suvak, M., Spinazzola, J. (2014). Yoga as an adjunctive treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Retrieved from: http://www.traumacenter.org/products/pdf_files/Yoga_Adjunctive_Treatment_PTSD_V0001.pdf

Genoveva Dornescu Business Decision Making

Genoveva Dornescu Business Decision Making

Introduction

Different businesses have different goals and objectives and to achieve the same they are required to make proper decisions. Decision making is very important for a business and it is regarded as the most crucial part. A business must be able to make appropriate decisions in order to achieve its goals and objectives. It has been also observed that a well plan decision leads to the improvement of the organization. In order to obtain a well-planned decision it is very important for the organizations to give much effort. Then only, they can acquire well stratified decisions that would be beneficial for them.
Business Decision MakingABC ltd, which is a medium sized ice- cream parlour, has decided to open up a branch of their ice- cream parlour in Northern Ireland. In this case, they have to undertake various decisions regarding it. The management of ABC ltd has decided to conduct a research in order to know the taste, preference, behaviour, attributes as well as the spending nature of the customers as these are the most crucial topics that the management should look into. They have undertaken the decision to conduct a survey that would help them to understand the market. In order to do this, it is advisable for the management of ABC ltd to collect primary data and secondary data. This in turn would help them to undertake suitable decisions that will prove to be beneficial for the company.

Task 1

1.1 Plan for collection of primary and secondary data

Figure 1
Source: http://lukasweber425.wordpress.com/the-secrets-of-marketing/customer-analysis/
The data that is directly obtained from the primary sources is called Primary data. A researcher can collect primary data by conducting a research (Hoffer, 1980). After the data is acquired the management should analyse the data thereby taking suitable decisions regarding launching a branch in Northern Ireland. The primary data can be collected from survey, questionnaires, face to face interviews etc. the collection of data can be made easy by using the following steps:
  1. The sample frame must be selected
  2. Design the method of the survey
  • A questionnaire must be designed
  1. At the end the data must be analysed
The above steps would help the researcher and the management to gather the primary data which in turn would help them to make decisions.

Genoveva Dornescu Business Decision Making

The secondary data is a very cheap source of collecting data (Hoffer, 1980). As secondary data is the already published data, the collection can be made very easier by following the below mentioned steps:

Explaining How Guest Model Of HRM Is Adopted At Harrods

Explaining How Guest Model Of HRM Is Adopted At Harrods
Introduction
Explaining How Guest Model Of HRM Is Adopted At HarrodsHuman Resource Management is an important function as an organization is formed by the people in it. The organizations need to access the current state of human resource management practices and develop better strategies accordingly to focus at best practices of managing the human resources. This study is based on the case study of HARRODS that has shown adoption of better management practices leading to the solution of the organizational problems it was facing earlier such as high turnover, low staff morale and low participation. This study thereby is indicative to the importance of having a better human resource management and planning.
TASK 1: Understanding the different perspectives of human resource management

1.1  Explaining how Guest Model of HRM is adopted at Harrods

David Guest Developed this model in the year 1997. This model has six analysis dimensions.
  • The strategies for the management of the human resources
  • The practices in the human resource management
  • Outcomes for human resource management
  • How does it impacts the behaviour
  • The impact of HRM on the performances
  • The financial outcomes (Marsden, 2002)
Guest Model at Harrods

Explaining How Guest Model Of HRM Is Adopted At Harrods

Strategies for the management of the human resource
At Harrods numerous strategies are implemented to ensure that the human resource is well managed suchas effective recruitment strategy to receive a work force that has the requisite skill set and fiils the requirement of the job having the right attitude for custoenmr service. Stress on performance management and performance improvement is seen at Harrods.
The practices in the human resource management
Harrods with its new ownership is extremely comitted and shows lot of concern for the employee well being showing the practice of the Guest Model. Harrods staff is well motivated and trained ensuring their satisfaction and highf performance.
Outcomes for human resource management
Harrods as an outcome of the practice of the Guest model has a happy and motivaqted work force who are consistrent high performers who aim to achieve a career growth with Harrods. Harrods are taking significant measures to retain their employees by making them satisfied at their jobs.
Impacts of the Guest Model in the behaviour
With the practice of Guest model Harrods staff has become more motivated and committed. There has been establishment of a guest –driven culture. The organization has been successful in creating shared values, attitude and beliefs and highly trained and skilled work force. Harrods is aiming at achieving ‘High quality employees’.

Gabriel 3 MFRD Assignment Help

Gabriel 3 MFRD Assignment Help

Task 1

P1.1 sources of finance available to business
Gabriel 3 MFRD Assignment HelpConsidering the recent financial downturn and the lacklustre job market I have decided to start a new company. The company would deal in the business of manufacturing perfumes and would operate as a public limited company (Backhaus and Wagner, 2004). For that purpose there are different kinds of finances available in the market. Such sources of finance and their implications are given below:
  1. Bank Loans Bank loans are forms of debt finance. The organization has to pay an interest at a pre-decided rate to service the loan and repay the amount in instalments which are inclusive of the interest payments.
  2. Bank Overdraft Bank overdraft is a form of debt finance but a bit different from a bank loan. A bank overdraft does not involve an outright issuance of loan but is associated with the bank account of the organization or the firm. The firm can withdraw more than what it has in the account upto to a specified limit. The organization has to pay an interest on the overdraft amount and a fee to enjoy the overdraft facility.
  3. Hire purchase or Leasing Hire purchase involves purchasing the asset on an instalment basis. The organization opting for hire purchase has to pay hire purchase instalments and a down payment. The hire purchase instalments are inclusive of the interest (Coyle, 2000). However, in case of non-payment of the instalments the asset can be repossessed by the Hire Vendor. The ownership of the asset is transferred after the last payment has been made.
  4. Share Issuance An organization can also procure funds by issuing shares. The shareholder pays the amount in exchange of share of profits in the organization also known as dividends. The shareholders of an organization enjoy voting rights which dilutes the control in the organization (Auerbach and Hassett, 2006). However, the biggest advantage of issuing equity is that the money received through the same is not required to be paid back to the shareholders till the time liquidation of the company is not ordered by the court.

P1.2 Assess the implications of the different sources

Gabriel 3 MFRD Assignment Help

Bank Loans - Bank loans come with a risk of bankruptcy but don’t impact the control in the organization. Bank loans are also a cheap source of finance as they come with a tax shield and is easy to procure as compared to equity issue.
Bank Overdraft - Bank overdrafts are like bank loans and come with a tax shield and hence are less costly (Castillo, Castillo and Guasch, 2012). They don’t impact the control in an organization but come with a risk of bankruptcy in the event of non-payment of dues or interest. Compared to other sources this is very easy to procure from the market.
Hire purchase or Leasing - There is not risk of loss of control but non-payment might lead to repossession. The interest paid against this arrangement is a tax deductible expense and hence is a less costly source of finance. Hire purchase agreement is comparatively easy to enter into and has less legal hassles.
Share Issuance - As the same does not come with a tax shield this is the costliest source of finance. Share issuance is also time taking as one has to go through various legal formalities and also dilutes the control in an organization. However the biggest advantage is that the money procured through the same does not have to be returned till the business comes to an end and hence provides a solid long term source of finance (Foley and Greenwood, 2008).

P1.3 Evaluate appropriate sources of finance for a business project

The choice of appropriate sources of finance includes the selection of the best alternatives like the participants can avail bank loan for the quick working capital arrangements if they need a short term financing by the bank. The next choice can be hire purchase where they can avail the machineries by paying a minimum amount and the rest through part payments. Finally when the payment period will be over, there will be option for the purchaser to acquire that machine if it performs well (Foley and Greenwood, 2008). And the last choice can be share issuance where a large amount of capital can be drawn for building expansion and payment of wages and salaries to the workers and employees respectively.