Saturday, 1 April 2017

Instructions And Guidelines For Writing Assignments

Instructions And Guidelines For Writing Assignments

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Friday, 31 March 2017

BUSINESS SKILLS FOR E-COMMERCE | Econamics Assignment Help

BUSINESS SKILLS FOR E-COMMERCE | Econamics Assignment Help

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BUSINESS SKILLS FOR E-COMMERCE | Econamics Assignment Help

BUSINESS SKILLS FOR E-COMMERCE | Econamics Assignment Help

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FINANCIAL INNOVATION IN EUROPE AND ASIA|25% Off Cheap Assignment Help

FINANCIAL INNOVATION IN EUROPE AND ASIA|25% Off Cheap Assignment Help

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THE IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

THE IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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Thursday, 30 March 2017

Unit 1 Business Skills For E-Commerce |25% Off Online Assignment Help

Unit 1 Business Skills For E-Commerce |25% Off Online Assignment Help

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Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Employability And Professional Development | Cheap Assignment Help in Australia,UK & US, We provides 30% OFF Assignment Writing Service|Assignment Help |Buy Assignment @ 25% Off on 1st Order

Employability And Professional Development | Cheap Assignment Help in Australia,UK & US, We provides 30% OFF Assignment Writing Service|Assignment Help |Buy Assignment @ 25% Off on 1st Order

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Measures of Inflation Assignment Help

This is a Measures of Inflation Assignment Help  in which we discuss Measures of Inflation can help your company cope with aging systems and limited resources that can lead to fragmented IT solutions.

Measures of Inflation Assignment HelpMeasures of Inflation Assignment Help

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

First of all we would like to thank to Allah as finally we were able to finish our assignment that have been given by Macroeconomics lecturer to us. This task had been done with all afford by group members even though a little bit problem were happened among us while doing this assignment. Luckly, all the problems can besettle down and we were able to adapt properly and wisely.
Topic that been chosen by our group are Inflation issues from the year 2006 to 2015 and the roles of Malaysian government in controlling the inflation. On the other hand, big thank also we address to others Macroeconomics lecturer  Madam Siti Norhaliza Binti Osman that always teach us and guide us to understand the things that we should know while studying Macroeconomics and also in producing good project work.
Finally,thank to our beloved friend that always stick together and also work hard to produce a good assignment with all afford and responsibility. Hope that all the affordwill give a lot of benefits to us and also to our group assignment. Million thank also wewish to all our classmate because they also help us in doing our group. They alwaysgive us ideas and comments on our project so that we can improve our assignment in manyways.

INTRODUCTION

“Inflation can be defined as a continuous increase in the general price level of goods and services in the economy.”(vengedasalam & Madhavan, 2014)  During the inflation, the general price level will continuous increase. But, not all of the product and services will increase, it is only in certain product and services. For the example, when the price of bus increase to 22%, it does not mean  that all of every services price are increasing by 22%. It is only the average increase.Measures of Inflation Assignment Help
      “Deflation refers to a decrease in the general price level of good and services in the economy”.(vengedasalam & Madhavan, 2014) Deflation is the decreasing of the general price level and it is opposite to inflation.
      Stagflation is a condition of slow economic growth and relatively high unemployment. When the high of unemployment,the spending will declines, as do prices of goods. According to (vengedasalam & Madhavan, 2014) there are various degrees of inflation, such as:
  1. Creeping inflation – a sustained rise in prices, i.e. by about 2% per year.
  2. Mild inflation – a sustained rise in price by about 8% to 10% per year.
  3. Hyperinflation – occurs when monthly prices rise by 50% to 60% or more.
InMalaysia, Malaysia always face the Inflation in over 7 years. From 2006 to 2015,the inflation rate is high in 2008 it because by the oil price shock which is caused by the international commodity prices continued.
  • CONTENT:
    • Measures of Inflation 
“KUALA LUMPUR (REUTERS) - Malaysia's consumer price index in September rose 2.6 per cent from a year earlier on higher prices for consumer goods, below expectations and moderating from August, government data showed on Friday (Oct 23).
The figure was below the 3.0 per cent median forecast by economists in a Reuters poll, and a 3.1 per cent reading in August.
Inflation has been picking up since a 6 per cent Goods and Services Tax was introduced in April.” (Malaysia inflation cools more than expected in September, 2015)
 
In Malaysia, the Consumer Price Index or CPI measures changes in the prices paid by consumers for a basket of goods and services..(Malaysia Consumer Price Index (CPI), 1972)
      Based on the graph given, the Index point in 2006 is 89 and it increase constantly to 2007. But, the inflation happen in 2008 because of the CPI are increasing too high from 94 to 101, the different of the CPI is 7. But, in the same year the CPI decrease from 101 to 98 and it makes the deflation happen when the deflation happen, it have a good effect and the bad effect, the good effect is the consumer can spending more in their expenditure. But, the bad effect is all of the producer will loss their profit because of they buy a raw material in the high price during the inflation happen, but the sale it during the deflation.
      Started from 2009 to 2015 the CPI increase constantly it make the Malaysia economy being stable.
Inflation rate from 2006 to 2016
YEARINFLATION RATE %
20063.6
20072.0
20085.4
20090.6
20101.7
20113.2
20121.7
20132.1
20143.1
20152.1
Figure 2 Inflation Rate from 2006 to 2015
Figure 3 Inflation Rate Graph since 2006 to 2016
The trend of the inflation rate from  2006 to 2015 is not constant. In 2006, the inflation rate is 3.6% but is decrease to 2.0 in 2007. Malaysia almostfaces the mild inflation in May 2008 because the inflation rate rose to 7.7%. In the situation the general price level of goods and service in the economy are increase and it effect at all of the consumer and producer. Since the inflation on  2008 “ Consumer prices in June rose 7.7 percent compared with the same month in 2007, more than double the 3.8 percent annual inflation rate recorded in May, according to data released late Wednesday by the Statistics Department.”(ssquah, 2008)
 But, in 2009 Malaysia face deflation because of the reduction in the rate of inflation to 0.6%. From 2010 to 2015, the inflation rate is stable and increasing constantly.
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STRATEGIC PLANNING

Zoltan Endrei 

STRATEGIC PLANNING

STRATEGIC PLANNING

Introduction

The management of every company needs to conduct effective strategic planning in order to achieve business growth. To create organizational strategies, the company’s management is required to define their goals and target. Most of the companies are concentrating on future planning which is the most useful for increasing their growth rate (Kogan and Bobchek, 2007). The present report is based on a UK-based company, which deals in online services and acts as a web-based intermediary between independent takeaway food outlets and customers. The mentioned company operates in more than 13 countries (JUST EAT, 2016). In this report, the strategic planning of JUST EAT is discussed along with different aspects that can affect the organizational behavior, i.e. the environment, business plans, modeling tools for strategic planning and factors that affect the organizational strategies have been examined. This is a local takeaway restaurant where customers can place their order online.

Activity 1

Review of current position of the company in the market
JUST EAT provides a platform to customers to search for a local takeaway restaurant so as to place orders online, and to choose from pickup or delivery options. The customers preferred it as the most convenient service, therefore, the mentioned company has large number of customers who visit and use the company's website. According the secondary data collected from the company's website, there are 8,000,000 visitors on the company's website every month. However, around 50% of them, approx. 4,000,000 customers place an order, by which the company generates revenues of +25% from online orders as compared to orders by phone (JUST EAT, 2016)
Through BCG matrix (see Figure 1), JUST EAT has to describe their long-term planning and the basic idea behind the use of this strategy is to get bigger market share with faster growth rate
STRATEGIC PLANNING
Figure 1: BCG matrix
(Source: Crowley, 2004)
According to the BCG matrix, the company is currently at the cash cow position where it has a high market share but it is not able to get similarly great growth in the business. The organization generates cash, which fulfills the needs to maintain the business. Low investment will not help them to get higher growth rate (Beekun, 2006).
  1. Dogs – The Dog section within BCG generally possesses low market share with lower growth rate, not generating large volume of cash. JUST EAT does not belong to this sectionas they have relatively large share within the UK market. Therefore, customer base within this section is low as the company’s market share as well as its growth is low. Customers are less attracted towards the services of JUST EAT.
  2. Question marks – Another section is question marks that generally depicts increasing market area and growth by delivering quality and online food services within the UK. With the increasing market growth rate, the company features capturing low market share as online food services and takeaway services are not preferred by all the customers that are residing in the UK. Customer base of JUST EAT is low as compared to other companies which are delivering food.
  3. Stars – However, the star section in BCG depicts that company is in the position to dominant the marketplace by making online delivery of the food services to the UK customers. In addition to this, star section also features strong market share with higher market growth that is beneficial for JUST EAT in increasing their image. Customer base within Stars section is very high as they are in dominant position as JUST EAT possesses relatively very high market share and growth that assist them in attracting large number of customers.
  4. Cash Cows – The last section in the BCG depicts the situation of cash cows that possess low market growth rate but have high market share that result in gaining possible profit. However, the products and services of JUST EAT lies within the cash cows' section as they have high market share with lower growth rate within the market that is beneficial for the company to invest low amounts to sustain in the market. Customer base within cash cows is high as JUST EAT has high market share as they are providing online food delivery to the customers that is beneficial for the company in the present scenario.

1.1. Importance of external factors that have an impact on organizations

The external factors are the most important attributes that can create impact on the development of any company. External environment plays vital role in the future of the business. To keep the business moving for the profits management needs to evaluate the external factors like competitor analysis, political, economic, social etc. External environment provides the activities of outside the boundaries of the organization. Stakeholders are the most important part for the growth of the organization they invest the money in the organization for the better expansion. Sometimes they may be the employees because they hold the share of the organization. The main role of the stakeholder is to invest large amount of money and share the profits with the directors. Competitive environment help the management to recognize the competitors in the market and try to identify the current trends in the market. It helps the manager to design the innovative policy by which business can compete in the market. These factors can be described by the PESTLE analysis (see Figure 2).
STRATEGIC PLANNING
Figure 2: External factors which have an impact on the organization (PESTLE)
(Source: Steiner, 2010)
 PESTEL analysis assists the organization to identify the external environment and try to make the policy according to the market trends. The analysis assists the manager to gain the competitive advantage in the market by designing the policy according to trends. For example of a business is selling the products and have various substitutes in the market then PESTEL analysis facilitate the organization to design the different strategy that gain the competitive advantage from the market. External factors, which have an impact on the organization, are as follows.
  • Political: this factor deals with the government interference with JUST EAT, i.e. the economic and different development policies regarding taxation, environmental issues, and labor, law or trade restrictions. Political stability and predictable political environment are also crucial issues for companies/JUST EAT when choosing on which markets to operate in. As the company is doing its business virtually, hence there is not much interference of the government in its business (Wallace, 2006).
  • Economic: this factor includes economic growth, interest rates and exchange rates. This factor has a major influence on the company’s operation and decision-making.
  • Social: this factor includes cultural and health-consciousness aspects. Currently, online shopping is increasing; therefore, this aspect presents a major opportunity to the company.
  • Technological: as the speed of technological advances means that the existing equipment, IT solutions and systems quickly become outdated, JUST EAT has to introduce different technical machines and software to maintain the standard of their products (Wallace, 2006).
  • Legal: these factors include consumer law, employment law, and health and safety law. These can affect how a company operates, thus the laws, especially laws regarding online businesses; need to be followed by JUST EAT.
  • Environmental: such factors include weather, climate, climate change, which definitely affect companies operating in the food industry. JUST EAT also needs to take into account that its operations and activities do not have a negative impact on the environment.

1.2.         Analysis of the main stakeholders and their needs and expectations

The main stakeholders of JUST EAT are its investor, suppliers, society and customers. Supply chain management function uses these factors in planning their strategies for the organization. These all can have a huge impact on the development of the organization.
  1. Investors: they are the initial suppliers of the industry. There are different investors that help the company regarding financial factors such as bank loans, financial institutions and partners. The investors’ essential interest is to know the financial position and credibility of the corporation before investing their money in it (Matthews, 2005).
  2. Suppliers: they are the distributors of raw materials, which are used in manufacturing company goods. Suppliers are connected to different retailers from where they obtain resources for the company. Suppliers expect the company to adopt a fair credit and purchase policy.
  3. Society: In ideal cases, the company conducts a research on the society’s needs and designs its product line accordingly. The society needs to know whether or not the company’s products and services are having any negative impact on the societal functions such as healthcare and reliable quality levels of sourced raw materials.
  4. Customer: these are the main external stakeholders of the company. The customers demand good quality products with proper information at competitive prices from the organization (Matthews, 2005).
The stakeholders’needs and expectations
Organizations have to identify their stakeholders and their importance for the growth of the business. The needs and expectations of stakeholders are very high regarding the company. JUST EAT has to fulfill the expectations of their stakeholders by trying to take into account each and every need of the different stakeholder groups. However, this is not possible as they contradict as for instance suppliers are interested in increasing their profits, but this can drive prices up which customers will find unsatisfactory.
There will be model which need to consider for a successful collaboration: Where to collaborate? Collaborate on those areas where JUST EAT has a solid footing. Change the win lose JUST EAT situation to a win -win models. Select the right partners based on their capabilities and their strategic alignment is significant for JUST EAT.
How to collaborate: collaborate for the long term. Develop the right infrastructures and manpower. JUST EAT need to build and collaborate for a long term decision.
Supply chain collaboration assists the JUST EAT to get the significant improvement for the long term and provide the attractive consumer packages at the reasonable prices in order to sustain in the market. Collaboration assists the management to improve the services and expand the business by merging the resources of two organizations. Business can increase the brand value through supply chain collaboration.
JUST EAT should fulfill the expectations of the stakeholder in the better way like provide the interest time to time. Classify the expectations as the foremost objective of the organization and evaluate the performance of the organization in the fixed tenure. JUST EAT should do the effective communication with the stakeholders in order to retain them. Stakeholders have the expectation that business must provide the interest on time and make them the part of the decision making process.
STRATEGIC PLANNING
Figure 3 Stakeholder analysis
(Source: Stakeholder analysis, 2016) 

1.3 & 3.2 Understanding development taking place within similar organizations and analysis of the changes of the organization

There are many factors due to which the internal environment of the company is going through several changes. These external factors – the economic, social, management, ecological and geographical factors – affect the internal operations of the company as well. Analyses of different changes in the organization reflects some particular areas such as social-political changes, technological changes, development changes, customer analysis and competitor analysis (May, 2010). This factor is directly or indirectly based on the evolution of new customers in the society. For getting advantages of these aspects, they have to get better efficiency and productivity. Ecological aspects are used to get different resources that are used in manufacturing their products, and this will define the evaluation of their products. Technical changes are necessary for the development of the company to be able to serve better meals to their consumers (Cassidy, 2005).
In today's scenario markets are expanding globally, and competitors are increasing in numbers as compared to earlier years.
JUST EAT needs to develop its products with new and different tastes. Therefore the company used benchmarking and portfolio analysis. Benchmarking is a method to compare business processes and performance metrics to the industry’s best practices and much-valued companies. Portfolio is used to analyze groups according to their environment. These are used to ensure growth and development of business in the ever-changing environment(Simerson, 2011). PESTLE analysis encompasses the external environment factors. PESTLE stands for political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental. These factors are uncontrollable; these are beyond the control of the company management. The external factors are as follows:
  • Political Factor: These factors are related to government policy and its administrative practices which determine the extent to which governments or regulatory bodies influence the industry. Political factors include import export rate, tariff rates, tax rates, etc. Thesewill highly influence the strategic plan framed by the organization (Kogan and Bobchek, 2007). For example, if the UK’s government may enforce new tax ratesapplicable to the industry or the organization, this will directly influence the revenue-generating structure of the company. Hence, the organization might change itsstructure as per the new enforce rate.
  • Economic Factor: These factors also contribute to the external environment that directly influences the organization's strategic plan. These factors include interest rates, inflation rate, foreign exchange rate, etc. When JUST EAT determine the company’s strategic policies it’s inescapable to take the economic factors into consideration.
  • Social Factor: These factors examine the changing environment of the UK market. Change occurs due to change in taste, preferences, demographics, etc. For example, there is a wide range of different foods available online (Nelson, 2008). JUST EAT should cater all different types of food items to attract customers from different demographic regions.
  • Technological Factor: The continuous innovation in technology also directly influences and changes organizational policies and procedures. JUSTEAT, armed with the new, improved technology, is now capable ofproviding wider selection of dishes, including various national specialties. The introduction of the new supply chain enabled quick and quality service with increased volumes.
  • Legal Factor: Legal factors include various laws enforced by the governing body that every organization have to follow while in operation, for example labor laws, health and safety law, consumer law, etc.
  • Environmental factor: Environmental factors include all the elements that create waste or have an impact on the environment. JUST EAToperates digitally, mostadministrative work is done electronically. The focus should be on upgrading equipment and machinery tomore energy-efficient versions as the primary carbon footprint of the company is due to its energy consumption. Logistics is a field demanding similar level of attention. Another fieldcan be choosing the right environment-friendly packaging materials for food items.Offering biodegradable packaging is compliance with the country’s regulationsis a must and also a unique sales factor for environmentally consciouscustomers.
  • SWOTAnalysis: It is a valuable technique for understanding, evaluating our company’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as to identify the opportunities and threats you face (see Figure 1).
  • Strengths: it is the capacity or unique point which helps the company in developing a unique image in the market.
  • Weaknesses: it highlights the weak side(s) of the business.
  • Opportunities: it comprises actions that can be taken for boosting the operation of the company.
  • Threats: elements that can affect the operation of the company
Swot Analyses
  • Customer Analysis: Customer analysis is the most important section in the organization that assists the business to identify the needs and wants of the customers. The analysis aid the management to recognize the targeted customers and produce the food items according to their needs. Customer analysis aids the organization to create the good relation and try to manage the productivity of the organization.
STRATEGIC PLANNING4Figure 4 Customer analysis
(Source: Customer analysis, 2016)
  • Competitor Analyses: This is a critical part for the marketing planning, to know the individuals/ competitors on your market where you are planning to grown. Evaluating competitor’s strategies and to define their strengths and weaknesses relative to those of your own product or service.
Competitor Analyses template
Competitiveness analysis
            The analysis assists the management to identify the policies and prices of the competitor in the market and provide the alternative to compete in the market. Through this analysis the business can easily indentify the current market trends and to expand the market with suitable strategy.
Benchmark: Management set the benchmark for the employees and instruct them to perform according to the set benchmark. It is the standard for the work performance to achieve the goal o time. Benchmark is the predefined criteria in which all employees have to perform. Benchmark helps the organization to recognize the set targets on time to achieve the goals on time with the allotted time duration.
Market segmentation: Under this method, JUST EAT segments the market and targets the customers according to the market. Organization categorizes the customers according to their age. For example, JUST EAT launch, the products for the small kids like burger, ice-cream etc to sell this kind of products business will target the 6-12 years children. Under market segmentation management target the different customers according to their age, gender, income etc.

Letter of Transmittal

The roles that banks play in an economy and the aims of prudential supervision

Letter of Transmittal

To Whom It May Concern:

            This is to inform you that this assignment report is now being submitted in partial fulfillment of the subject that requires this particular project. The project is addressing about the roles that banks play in an economy and the aims of prudential supervision. The subject of the assignment report has been accomplished according to the requirements requested with full quality and non-plagiarized contexts. Thanks for rendering our service.

Abstract

            Banks are considered as significant institutions to influence the economy of a nation that is why the study aims to discuss the significance of banks that plays in an economy. This includes assessing the functions of banks that can improve the condition of the economy in a long period of time. The study is curious about the impact made by banks to an economy, in which it seeks to explore the benefits and challenges that can be impacted by banks to a certain economy. In addition, the study seeks to elaborate managements and learning insights that can be utilized from the function of banks to an economy.

Part I. Background of the study

A. Overview

            Bank is a well-organized financial institution or group of institutions installed Economy across a certain society. There are different classifications of banks such as thrift, commercial, and rural banks that cater financial needs of each involved party that are living or transacting to other parties. The aim of bank’s existence is to provide opportunities for individuals, groups, and other organizations to invest their financial assets as well as liabilities. Bank executives believe that providing financial opportunities helps to circulate finances to local and foreign investments because it promotes socio-economic activities of involved parties to become productive. Banks are considered to be highly regulated to most financial systems of several countries around the world because these are institutions that facilitates significant amount of finances that can stimulate the economic structure of individuals, groups, and communities. Prudential supervision is the process of establishing financial guidance in order to improve banking or financial management, which helps to transform a certain economy to become productive as claimed by Schermerhorn (2009).

B. History

            In history, banking can be traced from ancient Roman Empire who learned how to save gold coins and gem stones for future investments and expenses to their basic needs. When ancient cities flourished, our ancestors established trade of various commodities wherein they start forming an institution in order to keep their assets. Prudential supervision has been already established by our ancestors in order to provide effective financial planning and management of savings and investments. Using banks helps to protect their assets from any lawless offenses such as stealing or burglary. As for the record, Hayde (2009) related that Monte dei Paschi de Siena is the oldest operating bank in the world located in Siena, Italy since 1407. Bankers realized that they need to develop calculation skills in order to effectively manage banking systems during the middle age period dating back from the period between 14th century to 17th century era as related by Prieto (2012).

Part II: Body (Discussion and analysis)

A. Functions of banks and prudential supervision

Safe keeping finances

 Banks are commonly known as finance keepers, which can be the first reasons why it was established during the ancient times. Many bankers and ordinary citizens believe that banks help to prevent financial or economic related offenses as an effective prudential supervision. As an example, if a person is going to open bank account and deposit a significant amount of money to an operating bank, they are certain that their money is now officially secured. Keeping their money to an operating bank helps to prevent violence, intimidation, and coercion. They are no longer at risk for being targeted for offensive activities because criminal offenders believe that they can gain monetary benefit knowing that their victim always carry their money wherever they go according to March (2011).

Payment Agents

Banks refers to a financial agent allowing other individual, group, or corporation to established bank accounts in order to save or to start their business according to their personal interests. Henderson (2010) claims that most service operating agencies utilize banks in order to have common paying centers for consumers to settle bills. As an example, a cable service customer prefers to pay their bills by depositing their statement of account for a certain month directly to the account of the company in order to be free from any service liabilities from the company. Banks as payment agents helps to prevent scams against third parties because allowing consumers to directly deposit payments to a service operating company helps to prevent revenues to criminal offenders.

Accepting funds

Banks are capable of accepting variety of financial funds from other financial institutions. These funds can be in a form of funds from current accounts similar to the role of being a payment agent, accepting term deposits, and to issue debts. Banks act as buffer zones for companies to have the chance to generate financial productivity to their businesses. Companies that are experiencing negative financial issues can now have the time to adjust their assets and liabilities in order to improve their revenues that can soon be paid to the borrowed funds from the bank in the future. Funds can be accepted by banks in partial or full payment depending from any circumstances experienced by the depositor or payee.

Creates new money

Banks is a business operating institution that generates profit from clients such as private individuals, groups, and institutions that play in an economy. Profits can be generated by implementing service charges represented by their banking and finance Economy And The Aims Of Prudential Supervisionactivities while safe keeping and processing financial issues. In each assets deposited in the banks, there are incurring interests that are generated monthly, bi-annually, and annually. Another income generation is when they create loaning services. Lending a significant amount of money contains interests, in which when the lending client is going to repay the total amount of assets being used; the rates are doubled or tripled from the original amount being leased. Banks owned by a state or a government could significantly benefit because the amount of revenues directly impacts its economy with the guidance of prudential supervision.

B. Beneficial impact of banks to play in an economy

Circulates monetary values:

Banks plays an important role in an economy by circulating financial assets and liabilities. It is an institution that helps to create a reasonable way of rendering transaction to investors and consumers. When there is a healthy circulation between consumers and businesses, it creates a return of investments to a certain society because it sustains microeconomic and macroeconomic productivity. When money is going to be circulated to local and international market boosts small, medium, and large entrepreneurs to generate revenues to the community. Bank helps to receive, produce, and gain monetary assets and liabilities so that there is a productive socio-economic process that improves local and foreign communities.

Savings

The role of banks guides consumers to save money and prevents an institution, group, or a private individual from excessive spending activities. People can learn on how to spend their money wisely so that they will not experience financial scarcity in the future due to effective spending of financial management. If the majority of local residents would be inspired to spend wisely, the economy of the community could significantly benefit from this particular circumstance according to Hewlett (2009). It is because using money in a smart way aims to prevent over or under-spending of assets that might affect investments as well as consumer demand. The long term impact of saving more money allows individuals to allocate their money for future investments that generates income in the future.

Cushions the economy

Central banks are responsible for regulating financial assets and liabilities of the economy. This includes enhancing interest rates and monetary reserves to be balanced in order to improve the amount of investment inflow and outflow to and from the country. Central banks are considered as an economic brain of a certain economy for the reason that it controls businesses, banks, and financial institutions to benefit the socio-economic status of the community as mentioned by Johnson (2008). If there are a low percentage of inflation rates, foreign companies and other states are going to infuse their confidence to establish economic partnerships. It is because there is a growing economic and financial productivity that is attracting investments to benefit both the consumers and the business companies.

Liquidates transactions

 Bank notes are strong indicators of monetary circulation because it is one of the most reliable services of bank as a financial operating institution. It provides safe banking and monetary transactions because there are liquidities that can provide significant trade indicators of a business company. Liquidation promotes transparent transaction because issuing receipts and recording transaction history provide evidences to improve the formality and legality of each transaction. Liquidated assets are usually intended for sustaining legal requirements of a certain economy in order to prevent legal ramifications such as lawsuits from third parties. Furthermore, it aims to promote safe banking and financial management for business entrepreneurs, consumers, and individuals.

C. Challenges that bank face in an economy

Global financial volatility

Volatilities of financial institutions from other parts of the world significantly influence local and international monetary movement of an economy. When foreign banks start to experience financial contractions, there are other foreign investors that are at risk of losing their investments. In the case of global financial crisis in 2008, most financial institutions shut their operations down because they filed for bankruptcy for being unable to control growing debts. Financial institutions that are operating internationally established investment networks that are experiencing investment volatility that can degrade the financial integrity of a certain economy. The socio-economic status of the society can be badly affected because people might turn jobless, homeless, and experiencing full of debts in the future according to Henry (2012).

Security threats

The presence of lawlessness managed by criminal offenders is a serious consideration that is always monitored by several banks. This includes criminal organizations that are capable to rob a bank that can leave behind loss of revenues, damages, and injuries to bank employees. Hacking incidents is another considerable issue since operating banks relies heavily on computer networks that are responsible for manipulating and security confidential information that can be cracked by cyber criminals that are known to be expert in cracking secured computer codes. The existence of a rogue terrorist group in a certain locality affects the flow of revenues and financial equities because military aggression can shut down establishments that could halt the economy of a certain community.

Corruption

Banking and finance personnel are easily tempted by the existence of monetary circulation affecting their daily routine while working in the banking institution. Some employees are going to get a slice of the funds being managed by the banks that can impact the integrity of the economy’s financial integrity as indicated by Prieto (2012). If the employee is a high ranking official of a certain economy, the risk of experiencing financial loss can be high because there is a large amount of money that can be corrupted that leaves behind creation of debts to the society. Corruption can spark public scandal because the person who had been trusted was found out to be the main culprit of generating corruptive practices against the banking agency.

Lack of financial skills

In history, the Asian financial crisis has been initiated by poor financial management of a certain bank in Thailand. Another is about lack of liquidated transactions and inefficient accounting management in a certain bank in the United States generated global economic collapse. These are classical issues of banking and financial management errors that are not usually monitored due to lack of audit and monitoring of transactions that were corrupted or involved in a simple mistake such as topographical error in computers. A simple mistake can generate significant financial problems in the future especially when a certain individual or group was involved in a financial related mistake.  It is because finances are highly valued entities wherein each change that were observed could bring significant transformation to the economical structure of an institution or economy as claimed by Henderson (2009).

D. Management to weather challenges

Fighting corruption

Corruption is a massive problem that is always experienced by an economy under prudential supervision. Auditing agencies aims at tracking down malicious transactions could lead to eliminate corrupt practices of an individual, group, or organization according to Davila, et al (2006). Routine auditing helps to identify discrepancies that exist within institutions that are involved in monetary transactions to other parties in order to resolve funds that are stolen. Eliminating corruption is one of the best ways to improve banking system that can improve the economy. Western countries are now experiencing low corruptive practices, which allow banking system is improving their socio-economic integrity. Officials that are involved in malicious transactions with banks should be immediately apprehended by the government to prevent future offenses.

Improving security

Most investors are choosing an area where there are maximized security units to prevent criminal activities. It is because whenever there is violence; business establishments such as banks suffer investment damages due to military atrocities as indicated by Johnson (2010). Dispatching law enforcement is a significant safety measure to prevent lawlessness to prevail across the community. Security provides banking investments to prosper because it makes investors comfortable knowing that they are in a position where transactions are continuously running due to safe banking. Security intelligence should be always imposed by the government so that any plan to target banks and other business establishments can be prevented. Armed forces should neutralize all criminal offenders because it helps to decrease criminal activities capable of shutting down banks as mentioned by Byrd (2003).

Restricting loans

Banks have the power to limit loaning systems because loaning possesses the highest risk to affect an economy’s financial structure. Loaning should be strict because it helps to prevent financially struggling companies to create a worst case scenario in business management. Terminating loan contracts to holders that are delinquent helps to prevent transaction losses because delinquent loan holders could destroy the reputation of banking systems. Delinquent loans have been blamed for the global financial crisis because inefficient banking managers were unable to settle financial accounts for loans that are performing poorly. Loans are considered to be a risky investment because the amount of money that you are going to borrow will double or triple when you are going to pay it before the loan matures.

Employment

Top caliber applicants with experience from other financial institutions should be always considered to be a part of the banking team that helps to improve prudential supervision. It means that banking institutions can increase their productivity and helping to impact the economy if they employ well-experienced bankers. High academic skills and knowledge is not an exception because employees with a colorful academic record can bring significant improvement to the economy. The risk of poor performance is limited because employing efficient banking personnel always delivers tasks effectively and accurately. Banking institutions can significantly control rising inflation, monetary movement, and market volatility because they use their skills and experience to handle financial pressures according to Abeles (2006).

Conclusion

            Banks is a significant institution in an economy because it helps to regulate and circulate inflow and outflow of finances to the society with the guidance of prudential supervision. People and the economy can save investments and securing future finances, which is the main function of banks. The strengths of banking help to control local and foreign market volatilities because it aims to protect investors and the economy productive in the long run. Banks are always faced with financial challenges due to inefficient financial management made from human errors. Challenges can be managed if banking institutions improves performance of financial managers who can become leaders and role models in order to prevent challenges from happening in the future.

Appendices

  1. Financial management: is the systematic framework of financial assets applied to a banking institution in order to regulate the assets and liabilities in a long period of time.
  2. Inflation: Is a value that affects trade and investment of a certain economy.
  3. Finance: Pertains to the value of a certain product, service, property, or investments, which is used by investors and banking institutions to mobilize trade and investments.
  4. Economy: is sector of a certain country that is responsible for generating income, management of businesses, and improving the prosperity between consumers and investors.
  5. Loans: Is the amount of expenses and assets that are borrowed by an interested party for personal or business related purposes.
  6. Savings: Is referred to a certain amount of finances that are going to be kept for future expense intents of an involved party.
  7. Corruption: Is an undesirable practice where a certain individual, group, or institution is being involved in fraudulent practices that destabilize a certain institution and community.
  8. Investments: Is a financial or property value that is infused to a certain organization in order to establish a business.
  9. Consumers: Are individuals, groups, or organizations that aim to purchase a certain product or acquire a certain service.
  10. Commodity: Is a marketable item that aims to satisfy the wants and the needs of an individual, which is the consumer.

Reference

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Davila, Tony; Marc J. Epstein and Robert Shelton (2006). “Making Innovation Work: How to Manage It, Measure It, and Profit from It”. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing.
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Henderson, Thomas (2010). Fundamentals of accounting. Sydney: University Press, 114-128.
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Hewlett, Roderick (2009).”The Cognitive Leader”: Rowan and Littlefield Pub Inc. Canberra
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